Aither je odborný elektronický časopis zařazený do databází ERIH+ a Scopus. Je vydáván Filozofickou fakultou Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci ve spolupráci s Filosofickým ústavem Akademie věd ČR. Vychází dvakrát ročně. Každé druhé číslo je mezinárodní (International Issue) a jsou v něm publikovány cizojazyčné články (především v angličtině, ale i v němčině a francouzštině). Časopis je registrován pod číslem ISSN 1803-7860.

Aither, 2015 (roč. 7), číslo 14

Aither 14/2015

Předmluva

Pavel Hobza, Kryštof Boháček

Aither 14/2015:5  

Slovo k Alešovi

Jan Payne

Aither 14/2015:6-7 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.011  

Platónův pojem politična a problém politické distribuce v Ústavě

Jakub Jinek

Aither 14/2015:8-33 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.012  

The paper claims that in Plato there is a concept of the political whose irreducibility on one hand arises from the original multiplicity of people and their interests as well as from their sense of community and which on the other hand is rooted in Platonic dialectics of unity and multiplicity. To reveal this, the paper focuses on the problem of political distribution as conceived in the Republic by discussing the occurences of the idea of "doing one's own". The Republic offers a reflexive way of dealing with such pieces of traditional ethical teaching by retrieving - in a series of reformulations - its philosophical content but also...

Tragikomický Euthyfrón: frustrace, vertikála, Homér

Kryštof Boháček

Aither 14/2015:34-55 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.013  

The article deals with interpretative possibilities of the dialogue Euthyphro. First, the author introduces the dialogue briefly and then proves the problematic moments that have led to very different approaches in literature. Then he explains that representatives of the Czech research of the dialogue Euthyphro also represent these different approaches. Third, the author discusses Patočka's strindent but highly subjective interpretation. Thereafter the author approaches the, however erudite and balanced, too cautious interpretation of Novotný. Finally, the interpretation of Aleš Havlíček is analyzed. The author claims Havlíček's "Vertical...

Matematika jako průprava k dialektickému poznání dobra: Oprava tradičního překladatelského omylu

Ivan Chvatík

Aither 14/2015:56-67 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.014  

Using the backdrop of the analysis of Plato's metaphor of the Divided Line, the author wants to show the unsustainability of the traditional translation of the sentence in Plato's Republic at 533c/d. At the transition from the third to the forth part of the Line, i. e. from the deductive (mathematical) dianoia to the dialectical noésis, the author argues, that it is not appropriate to destroy the hypotheses used in the deduction, but rather it is necessary to take them up again and, in the dialectical research, to establish which one of them might stand and would be able to serve in the third part of the Line as an...

Texty, které chtěly překonat řád svého světa: k Deleuzově dialektické interpretaci Platónovy rétoriky

Martin Švantner

Aither 14/2015:68-83 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.015  

The aim of the article is to analyze and criticize principles and strategies of reading Plato's dialogues in the tradition of the so-called French poststructuralism and postmodernism, namely in the work of G. Deleuze (The Logic of Sense) and J. F. Lyotard (The Differend). Critical analysis and comparison is based on Deleuze's reading of Plato in structuralist fashion and on Lyotard's interpretation of rhetorics of Platonic texts.

Homér a Hésiodos v platónských dialozích

Veronika Konrádová

Aither 14/2015:84-99 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.016  

The theme of the article is Plato's interaction with the poetic heritage represented in the works of the two great epic writers, Homer and Hesiod. The text is based on a broader reference to the funding role of the poetic tradition in the socio-cultural horizon of ancient Greece and it focuses closely on Plato's multilateral coping with this tradition. In this context, the article analyzes mainly the implicit thematization of poetry present throughout the Platonic corpus in the form of numerous quotations, paraphrases, allusions or intertext references. The first part of the article demonstrates Plato's differentiated treatment of poetic material complying...

Uvažuje Lucretius o spoločenskom pokroku?

Ulrich Wollner

Aither 14/2015:100-117 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.017  

The theme of human history - its birth and development - come together with the question of the origin of first communities, cities and political institutions among the most interesting part of the fifth book of Lucretius' poem De rerum natura. The aim of the article is to gradually analyze and interpret all four stages in human development and focus on the examination of the question whether it is possible to characterize this development as a progress. Do people progress continuously towards more sophisticated forms of life? Is the new phase better than the previous one? Are people better? Are they more moral than people living in earlier...

Rithmomachie - souboj čísel čili aritmetická hra filosofů

Marek Otisk

Aither 14/2015:118-139 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.018  

This paper deals with the philosopher's game called rithmomachia, i.e. the battle of the numbers. The beginnings of the playing of this game we can find around the year 1000 AD, the oldest texts are dated to the first half of the 11th century. The aim of this paper is the description of selected rules of this game according to the oldest texts about rithmomachy (written between ca. 1030 and ca. 1130). This article mainly wants to focus on the correlation between those rules and the subject of interest of the medieval intellectuals in the field of arithmetic (especially in the context of Boethius's Introduction to Arithmetic).

Jednota intelektu v renesanční filosofii

Tomáš Nejeschleba

Aither 14/2015:140-161 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2015.019  

The concept of the unicity of the intellect emerged in the history of philosophy in association with interpretations of Aristotle's On the Soul, where the Philosopher distinguishes between two types of "intellect". The first one in the subsequent tradition becomes the agent intellect (intellectus agens), unlike the second type, which is usually referred to as the material intellect (materialis), or the possible intellect (possibilis). A major controversy did not arise until the unicity of intellect was attributed to the possible (material) intellect by Averroes, who in his Long Commentary to Aristotle's On the...