Aither je odborný elektronický časopis zařazený do databází ERIH+ a Scopus. Je vydáván Filozofickou fakultou Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci ve spolupráci s Filosofickým ústavem Akademie věd ČR. Vychází dvakrát ročně. Každé druhé číslo je mezinárodní (International Issue) a jsou v něm publikovány cizojazyčné články (především v angličtině, ale i v němčině a francouzštině). Časopis je registrován pod číslem ISSN 1803-7860.

Aither, 2018 (roč. 10), číslo 20

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5)

The Muses and Reflexive Nature of the World in Archaic Greek Thought

Eliška Fulínová

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):4-19 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.005  

In Greek mythology, the Muses are not just inspiring agents of poetical creation, but their role is first of all a cosmological one: their birth crowns the process of cosmogony, bringing the world into the manifestation. As we try to demonstrate primarily in the course of Hesiod's Theogony, the song of the Muses celebrates and thus manifests the cosmos or the world-order through its articulation by means of the musical speech. As the world enters a new domain of appearance, new cosmological categories emerge. The first one being the beauty of the cosmos: as a world-order as well as the ordered whole, it can now manifest itself as beautiful....

Transmigrating Soul Between the Presocratics and Plato

Vojtěch Hladký

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):20-49 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.006  

The article discusses the nature of transmigrating soul in the early Greek thought, most notably in the thought of Empedocles and Philolaus. It argues that, in general, soul was conceived as a kind of subtle 'matter'. The turning point Plato who strive to guarantee soul's immortality by connecting it with transcendent, but also immaterial Forms. This accentuates the intellectual character of soul, and this holds also in eschatological context, but at the same time transforms the categories in which we tend to think about it until today.

Socrates as the Paradigmatic Figure of Practical Philosophy

Matúš Porubjak

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):50-65 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.007  

This philosophical essay aims to return to the Socratic problem, ask it anew, and make an attempt to find its possible solution. In the introduction, the author briefly discusses to genesis of the Socratic problem and the basic methodological problems we encounter when dealing with it. Further on, it defines five basic sources of information about Socrates on which the interpretation tradition is based. Then the author outlines two key features of Socrates' personality, aligned with the vast majority of sources: (1) Socrates' belief that he has no theoretical knowledge; (2) Socrates' predilection towards practical questions, and the practical dimension...

Aristotle's Theory of Language in the Light of Phys. I.1

Pavol Labuda

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):66-77 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.008  

The main aim of my paper is to analyse Aristotle's theory of language in the context of his Physics I.1 and via an analysis and an interpretation of this part of his Physics I try to show that (i) the study of human language (logos) significantly falls within the competence of Aristotle's physics (i.e., natural philosophy), (ii) we can find the results of such (physical) inquiry in Aristotle's zoological writings, stated in the forms of the first principles, causes and elements of the human speech (logos) and (iii) the analogies (Phys. 184b13-14) made by Aristotle at the very end of the first chapter make better sense...

Etymology and Meaning of προαίρεσις in Aristotle's Ethics

Maciej Smolak

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):78-97 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.009  

In NE III.2 1112a13 Aristotle raises the following question: "What is προαίρεσις?". But προαίρεσις has different meanings and it is practically untranslatable into modern languages, as are most crucial terms of classical Greek. In this article, the author attempts to explain what προαίρεσις is for Aristotle. The author first presents the etymology of the term προαίρεσις based upon Aristotle's remarks in his ethical...

Aristotle vs. Boole: A case of the Universe of Discourse

Karel Šebela

Aither 20/2018 (International issue no. 5):98-107 | DOI: 10.5507/aither.2018.010  

I will present a case study comparing Aristotelian and modern predicate logic. The traditional square of opposition embodied certain relations between propositions. When rewritten into the language of modern logic, the relations embodied in the traditional square mostly disappear. As a matter of fact, some conservative versions of predicate logic, namely sortal logic, preserve relations in the square. I will argue that the explanation of the fact is that modern logic accepts the so- called principle of wholistic reference. The principle was stated initially by Boole with respect to his concept of a so-called universe of discourse. According to the...